Cardiologue et Directeur de la prévention, Institut de Cardiologie de Montréal. Professeur titulaire de clinique, Faculté de médecine de l'Université de Montréal. / Cardiologist and Director of Prevention, Montreal Heart Institute. Clinical Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal.See all articles
A large number of studies indicate that there is a positive association between exercise and good health, particularly good cardiovascular health. Researchers are now focusing their efforts on identifying the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects.
A study conducted among 580 young Finnish men shows that aerobic fitness (also known as cardiorespiratory capacity) is associated with levels of several metabolites that are beneficial to health. The approach used in this study is referred to as “metabolomics”, i.e. an approach that aims to identify metabolic differences, for example in the blood of people with a disease (diabetes, cancer) compared to people in good health. Most of the metabolomic studies conducted to date have focused on diseases, but this approach has also been applied recently to determine which metabolites are indicative of good health, particularly with regard to exercise.
Of the 66 metabolites selected in the Finnish study, 48 were at different levels between the group of participants who had the highest aerobic fitness and the one with the lowest aerobic fitness (see Figure 2 and Figure 3 of the original article). These differences include a 44% lower concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, the “bad cholesterol”), an 81% higher concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the “good” cholesterol), a 52% lower total of triglycerides (Figure 1 below, orange bars). On the other hand, greater muscular strength of the participants was not associated with favourable levels for these same metabolites (Figure 1 below, blue bars).
Figure 1. Main differences in blood metabolites between the participants who had the highest aerobic fitness and those who had the lowest (orange bars) or between the participants who had the highest muscular strength and those who had the lowest (blue bars). * Significant difference (P <0.001 or P <0.002); NS: Not significant difference. From Kujala et al., 2019.
The more detailed analysis (see Figure 2 in the original article) shows that all LDL and VLDL particles of different sizes (small, medium, large, very large, extremely large) are present in lower concentrations in the blood of participants who have a good aerobic capacity than in participants who have a lower aerobic capacity. On the contrary, all HDL particles (very large, large, or medium-sized), except for small ones, are present in higher concentrations in the group with the highest aerobic fitness. Large-size HDLs are particularly beneficial for good cardiovascular health.
Participants with good cardiorespiratory capacity had 80% less apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in their blood than those who were less fit. ApoB is a protein found in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The measurement of the ApoB makes it possible to estimate the number of particles of cholesterol, which is a good indication of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. High blood levels of ApoB are therefore a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, independently of the level of LDL-cholesterol.
A high concentration of triglycerides in the blood is a risk marker for coronary heart disease and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Excessive consumption of sugars and alcohol (not fat) is generally the cause of a high level of triglycerides in the blood.
Other important metabolites that are present in lower concentrations in individuals with good aerobic capacity include total fatty acids (-60%), glycerol (-64%), lactate (-34%), pyruvate (-36%), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) isoleucine (-37%) and leucine (-55%), and amino acids phenylalanine (-54%) and tyrosine (-55%). Interestingly, theunsaturation degree of fatty acid of participants in better aerobic fitness was 59% higher than in less fit participants; asituation conducive to good cardiovascular health knowing that it is saturated fatty acids that, in excess, increase theconcentration of LDL-cholesterol and are atherogenic.
High levels of BCAA, phenylalanine and tyrosine are found in obese people and they have been associated with a 5-fold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in two separate cohorts. Lower levels of glycerol and ketone bodies (acetylacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate) in individuals with a high aerobic capacity suggest an increase in fat degradation.
Several metabolites (19) remain associated with a high aerobic fitness after adjustments to account for age and percentageof body fat. After making the same adjustments, muscular strength was associated with only 8 measures of the “metabolome” and none of these associations related to cholesterol or other blood lipids.
This study found more favourable associations between aerobic fitness and certain metabolites that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease than for high muscular strength. It should not be concluded, however, that muscular endurance exercises are useless, quite the contrary. Indeed, muscle training increases aerobic fitness and is an important component of maintaining and improving the condition of people with chronic diseases and the elderly. It is therefore necessary to combine aerobic and muscular exercises to optimize the benefits for cardiovascular health and overall well-being.