There is currently a consensus in the scientific community on the importance of favouring dietary sources of unsaturated fats (especially monounsaturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats) to significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality (see our article on this subject). With the exception of fatty fish rich in omega-3 (salmon, sardines, mackerel), plant-based foods are the main sources of these unsaturated fats, particularly oils (olive oil and those rich in omega-3 like canola oil), nuts, certain seeds (flax, chia, hemp) as well as fruits such as avocado. Regular consumption of these foods high in unsaturated fats has repeatedly been associated with a marked decrease in the risk of cardiovascular events, a cardioprotective effect that is particularly well documented for extra-virgin olive oil and nuts.
A unique nutritional profile
Although the impact of avocado consumption has been less studied than that of other plant sources of unsaturated fat, it has been suspected for several years that this fruit also exerts positive effects on cardiovascular health. On the one hand, avocado stands out from other fruits for its exceptionally high monounsaturated fat content, with a content (per serving) similar to that of olive oil (Table 1). On the other hand, a serving of avocado contains very high amounts of fibre (4 g), potassium (350 mg), folate (60 µg), and several other vitamins and minerals known to participate in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Table 1. Comparison of the lipid profile of avocado and olive oil. The data corresponds to the amount of fatty acids contained in half of a Haas avocado, the main variety consumed in the world, or olive oil (1 tablespoon or 15 mL). Taken from USDA. FoodData Central.
|Fatty acids||Avocado (68 g)||Olive oil (15 mL)
|Total||10 g||12.7 g
|Monounsaturated||6.7 g||9.4 g
|Polyunsaturated||1.2 g||1.2 g
|Saturated||1.4 g||2.1 g
This positive impact on the heart is also suggested by the results of intervention studies that examined the impact of avocado on certain markers of good cardiovascular health. For example, a meta-analysis of 7 studies (202 participants) indicates that the consumption of avocado is associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decrease in the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, a parameter which is considered to be a good predictor of coronary heart disease mortality. A decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels associated with the consumption of avocado has also been reported, but is, however, not observed in all studies. Nevertheless, the increase in HDL cholesterol observed in all the studies is very encouraging and strongly suggests that avocado could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
A cardioprotective fruit
This cardioprotective potential of avocado has just been confirmed by the results of a large-scale epidemiological studycarried out among people enrolled in two large cohorts headed by Harvard University, namely the Nurses’ Health Study (68,786 women) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (41,701 men). Over a period of 30 years, researchers periodically collected information on the dietary habits of participants in both studies and subsequently examined the association between avocado consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The results obtained are very interesting: compared to people who never or very rarely eat them, regular avocado consumers have a risk of coronary heart disease reduced by 16% (1 serving per week) and 21% (2 servings or more per week) (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Association between the frequency of avocado consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. The quantities indicated refer to one serving of avocado, corresponding to approximately half of the fruit. Taken from Pacheco et al. (2022).
There are therefore only benefits to integrating avocado into our eating habits, especially if its monounsaturated fats replace other sources of fats that are less beneficial to health. According to the researchers’ calculations, replacing half a serving of foods rich in saturated fat (butter, cheese, deli meats) with an equivalent quantity of avocado would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by approximately 20%.
Avocados are increasingly popular, especially among young people, and are even predicted to become the 2nd most traded tropical fruit by 2030 globally, just behind bananas. In light of the positive effects of these fruits on cardiovascular health, we can only welcome this new trend.
Obviously, the high demand for avocado creates strong pressures on the fruit’s production systems, particularly in terms of deforestation for the establishment of new crops and increased demand for water. However, it is important to note that the water footprint (the amount of water required for production) of avocado is much lower than that of all animal products, especially beef (Table 2). In addition, as is the case for all plants, the carbon footprint of avocado is also much lower than that of animal products, the production of an avocado generating approximately 0.2 kg of CO2-eq compared to 4 kg for beef.
Table 2. Comparison of the water footprint of avocado and different foods of animal origin. Taken from UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education (2010)
|Lamb and sheep||10,400