Association between chronic stress and heart attacks

Association between chronic stress and heart attacks

OVERVIEW

  • Cortisol concentration in recent hair growth was measured in middle-aged people shortly after suffering a heart attack, and in people of the same age group who were in apparent good health.
  • The median concentration of cortisol in the hair of people with a myocardial infarction was 2.4 times higher than that measured in the control group.
  • The risk of myocardial infarction was approximately 5 times higher in people with high cortisol levels compared to those with normal cortisol levels.
  • These results indicate that chronic stress appears to be an important risk factor for myocardial infarction.

It is well established that acute physical and/or emotional stress (accident, anger, fear) is a risk factor for heart attack (see our article on the subject). However, it is not clear whether high levels of chronic stress also contribute to the risk of myocardial infarction. One of the reasons that little is known about this potential risk factor is that until recently, it was only possible to measure acute stress, not chronic stress. The stress response involves activation of the corticotropic axis (or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and the autonomic nervous system, including the secretion of cortisol, one of the main stress hormones. Chronic stress can now be objectively and conveniently assessed in people by measuring cortisol levels in hair. As the hair grows, an amount of cortisol proportional to the blood concentration is incorporated into the hair. A 1 cm hair cut at the base of the scalp will have taken 4 to 6 weeks to grow, and its cortisol content will reflect the level of chronic stress the person has experienced during that time. The last 5–10 days of hair growth is in and under the scalp.

In a retrospective study of women and men under the age of 65 in Sweden, the levels of cortisol in the hair of 174 people who had suffered a myocardial infarction were compared to those of 3156 people in apparent good health. The median concentration of cortisol in the hair of people with a myocardial infarction was 2.4 times higher (53.2 pg/mg) than that measured in the control group (22.2 pg/mg).

Analysis of the data shows a very clear dose-response relationship, i.e. that the higher the levels of cortisol detected in the participants’ hair, the greater the risk of a heart attack. This dose-effect relationship is not linear, as can be seen in Figure 1: the cortisol levels of the first 3 quintiles are not associated with a significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction, but this risk increases very significantly for cortisol levels in quintiles 4 and 5.

Figure 1. Relative risk of myocardial infarction as a function of the concentration of cortisol in the hair of the participants. *Very significant (p <0.001). From Faresjö et al., 2020.

 

This retrospective study shows an association between high cortisol levels and myocardial infarction, but this type of study does not establish a causal link. Results from other studies also suggest that cortisol may cause myocardial infarction. For example, the elevated cortisol levels seen in people with Cushing’s syndrome or in patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy are linked to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial infarction. It is therefore plausible that increased cortisol levels cause metabolic disorders that lead to atherosclerosis and, in the long term, to coronary artery blockage and myocardial infarction. Increased blood cortisol levels also have direct effects on the cardiovascular system, including increased contractility of blood vessels, inhibition of angiogenesis, and increased platelet activation, which can lead to thrombosis.

Exposure to chronic stress is typical of our modern societies and can be the cause of many illnesses. We have to learn to manage this chronic stress, for example by practicing cardiac coherence or meditation. I encourage readers to learn more on this subject; there are many very accessible books: Christophe André: Looking at Mindfulness, Matthieu Ricard: The Art of Meditation, Jon Kabat-Zinn: Full Catastrophe Living, and Rick Hanson: Hardwiring Happiness.

Why do the Japanese have the highest life expectancy in the world?

Why do the Japanese have the highest life expectancy in the world?

OVERVIEW

  • The Japanese have the highest life expectancy at birth among the G7 countries.
  • The higher life expectancy of the Japanese is mainly due to fewer deaths from ischemic heart disease, including myocardial infarction, and cancer (especially breast and prostate).
  • This exceptional longevity is explained by a low rate of obesity and a unique diet, characterized by a low consumption of red meat and a high consumption of fish and plant foods such as soybeans and tea.

Several diets are conducive to the maintenance of good health and to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, for example, the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), the vegetarian diet, and the Japanese diet. We often refer to the Mediterranean Diet in these pages, because it is well established scientifically that this diet is particularly beneficial for cardiovascular health. Knowing that the Japanese have the highest life expectancy among the G7 countries, the special diet in Japan has also captured the attention of experts and an informed public in recent years.

Japanese life expectancy
Among the G7 countries, Japan has the highest life expectancy at birth according to 2016 OECD data, particularly for women. Japanese men have a slightly higher life expectancy (81.1 years) than that of Canadian men (80.9 years), while the life expectancy of Japanese women (87.1 years) is significantly higher (2.4 years) than that of Canadian women (84.7 years). The healthy life expectancy of the Japanese, 74.8 years, is also higher than in Canada (73.2 years).

The higher life expectancy of Japanese people is mainly due to fewer deaths from ischemic heart disease and cancers, particularly breast and prostate cancer. This low mortality is mainly attributable to a low rate of obesity, low consumption of red meat, and high consumption of fish and plant foods such as soybeans and tea. In Japan, the obesity rate is low (4.8% for men and 3.7% for women). By comparison, in Canada 24.6% of adult men and 26.2% of adult women were obese (BMI ≥ 30) in 2016. Obesity is an important risk factor for both ischemic heart disease and several types of cancers.

Yet in the early 1960s, Japanese life expectancy was the lowest of any G7 country, mainly due to high mortality from cerebrovascular disease and stomach cancer. The decrease in salt and salty food intake is partly responsible for the decrease in mortality from cerebrovascular disease and stomach cancer. The Japanese consumed an average of 14.5 g of salt/day in 1973 and probably more before that. They eat less salt these days (9.5 g/day in 2017), but it’s still too much. Canadians now consume on average about 7 g of salt/day (2.76 g of sodium/day), almost double the intake recommended by Health Canada.

The Japanese diet
Compared to Canadians, the French, Italians and Americans, the Japanese consume much less meat (especially beef), dairy products, sugar and sweeteners, fruits and potatoes, but much more fish and seafood, rice, soybeans and tea (Table 1). In 2017, the Japanese consumed an average of 2,697 kilocalories per day according to the FAO, significantly less than in Canada (3492 kcal per day), France (3558 kcal per day), Italy (3522 kcal per day), and the United States (3766 kcal per day).

Table 1. Food supply quantity (kg/capita/year) in selected countries in 2013a.

              aAdapted from Tsugane, 2020. FAO data: FAOSTAT (Food and agriculture data) (http://www.fao.org/).

Less red meat, more fish and seafood
The Japanese eat on average almost half as much meat as Canadians (46% less), but twice as much fish and seafood. This considerable difference translates into a reduced dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, which is associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease, but an increased risk of stroke. On the contrary, dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and seafood is associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease. The lower consumption of red meat and higher consumption of fish and seafood by the Japanese could therefore explain the lower mortality from ischemic heart disease and the higher mortality from cerebrovascular disease in Japan. Experts believe that the decline in death from cerebrovascular disease is associated with changes in the Japanese diet, specifically increased consumption of animal products and dairy products, and consequently of saturated fat and calcium (a consumption which remains moderate), combined with a decrease in salt consumption. Indeed, contrary to what is observed in the West, the consumption of saturated fat in Japan is associated with a reduction in the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and to a lesser extent of ischemic stroke, according to a meta-analysis of prospective studies. The cause of this difference is not known, but it could be attributable to genetic susceptibility or confounding factors according to the authors of the meta-analysis.

Soybeans
Soy is a food mainly consumed in Asia, including Japan where it is consumed as is after cooking (edamame) and especially in processed form, by fermentation (soy sauce, miso paste, nattō) or by coagulation of soy milk (tofu). It is an important source of isoflavones, molecules that have anticancer properties and are beneficial for good cardiovascular health. Consumption of isoflavones by Asians has been linked to a lower risk of breast and prostate cancer (see our article on the subject).

Sugar
The Japanese consume relatively few sugars and starches, which partly explains the low prevalence of obesity-associated diseases such as ischemic heart disease and breast cancer.

Green tea
The Japanese generally consume green tea with no added sugar. Prospective studies from Japan show that green tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and cardiac death.

Westernization of Japanese eating habits
The westernization of the Japanese diet after World War II allowed the inhabitants of this country to be healthier and to reduce mortality caused by infectious diseases, pneumonia and cerebrovascular diseases, thereby considerably increasing their life expectancy. A survey of the eating habits of 88,527 Japanese from 2003 to 2015 indicates that this westernization continues. Based on the daily consumption of 31 food groups, the researchers identified three main types of eating habits:

1- Plant foods and fish
High intakes of vegetables, fruits, legumes, potatoes, mushrooms, seaweed, pickled vegetables, rice, fish, sugar, salt-based seasonings and tea.

2- Bread and dairy
High intakes of bread, dairy products, fruits and sugar. Low intake of rice.

3- Animal foods and oils
High intakes of red and processed meat, eggs, vegetable oils.

A downward trend in the “plant foods and fish” group (the staple of the traditional Japanese diet or washoku) was observed in all age groups. An increase in the “bread and dairy” group was observed in the 50–64 and ≥65 years age groups, but not among the youngest. For the “animal foods and oils” group, an increasing trend was observed during the thirteen years of the study in all age groups except the youngest (20–34 years). The Japanese are eating more and more like Westerners. Will this have an adverse effect on their health and life expectancy? It is too early to know, only the next few decades will tell.

Contribution of genes and lifestyle to the health of the Japanese
Some risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer are hereditary, while others are associated with lifestyle (diet, smoking, exercise, etc.). At the turn of the 20th century, there was significant Japanese immigration to the United States (especially California and Hawaii) and South America (Brazil, Peru). After a few generations, the descendants of Japanese migrants adopted the way of life of the host countries. While Japan has one of the lowest incidences of cardiovascular disease in the world, this incidence doubled among the Japanese who migrated to Hawaii and quadrupled among those who chose to live in California according to a 1975 study. What is surprising is that this increase has been observed regardless of blood pressure or cholesterol levels, and seems rather directly related to the abandonment of the traditional Japanese way of life by migrants.

Since the 1970s, the average cholesterol level of the Japanese has nonetheless increased, but despite this and the high rate of smoking in this country, the incidence of coronary heart disease remains substantially lower in Japan than in the West. To better understand these differences, a 2003 study compared the risk factors and diets of Japanese living in Japan with third- and fourth-generation Japanese migrants living in Hawaii in the United States. Men’s blood pressure was significantly higher among Japanese than among Japanese-Americans, while there was no significant difference for women. Far fewer Japanese were treated for hypertension than in Hawaii. More Japanese people (especially men) smoked than Japanese-Americans. Body mass index, blood levels of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin (an indicator for diabetes), and fibrinogen (a marker of inflammation) were significantly lower in Japan than in Hawaii. HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) was higher in the Japanese than in the Japanese-Americans. The dietary intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids (harmful to cardiovascular health) was lower in Japan than in Hawaii. In contrast, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids (beneficial for good cardiovascular health) was higher in Japan than in Hawaii. These differences may partly explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in Japan than in Western industrialized countries.

In other words, even if these migrants have the same basic risk as their compatriots who have remained in the country of origin (age, sex and heredity), the simple fact of adopting the lifestyle of their host country is enough to significantly increase their risk of cardiovascular disease.

Although the Japanese diet is different from those of Western countries, it has similar characteristics to the Mediterranean diet. Why not prepare delicious Japanese soy dishes from time to time (for example, tofu, edamame, miso soup), drink green tea, eat less meat, sugar and starch and more fish? Not only will your meals be more varied, but you could enjoy the health benefits of the Japanese diet.

Effects of cold on cardiovascular health

Effects of cold on cardiovascular health

OVERVIEW

  • Exposure to cold causes a contraction of blood vessels as well as an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, and the work of the heart muscle.
  • The combination of cold and exercise further increases stress on the cardiovascular system.
  • Cold temperatures are associated with increased cardiac symptoms (angina, arrhythmias) and an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.
  • Patients with coronary artery disease should limit exposure to cold and dress warmly and cover their face when exercising.

Can the sometimes biting cold of our winters affect our overall health and our cardiovascular health in particular? For an exhaustive review of the literature on the effects of cold on health in general, see the summary report (in French only) recently published by the Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ). In this article, we will focus on the main effects of cold on the cardiovascular system and more specifically on the health of people with cardiovascular disease.

Brief and prolonged exposure to cold both affect the cardiovascular system, and exercise in cold weather further increases stress on the heart and arteries. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease and mortality increase when the ambient temperature is cold and during cold spells. The winter season is associated with a greater number of cardiac symptoms (angina, arrhythmias) and cardiovascular events such as hypertensive crisis, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic ruptures and dissections, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Mortality from cold
Globally, more temperature-related deaths were caused by cold (7.29%) than heat (0.42%). For Canada, 4.46% of deaths were attributable to cold (2.54% for Montreal), and 0.54% to heat (0.68% for Montreal).

Intuition may lead us to believe that it is during periods of extreme cold that more adverse health effects occur, but the reality is quite different. According to a study that analyzed 74,225,200 deaths that occurred between 1985 and 2012 in 13 large countries on 5 continents, extreme temperatures (cold or hot) accounted for only 0.86% of all deaths, while the majority of cold-related deaths occurred at moderately cold temperatures (6.66%).

Acute effects of cold on the cardiovascular system of healthy people

Blood pressure. The drop in skin temperature upon exposure to cold is detected by skin thermoreceptors that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and induce a vasoconstriction reflex (decrease in the diameter of the blood vessels). This peripheral vasoconstriction prevents heat loss from the surface of the body and has the effect of increasing systolic (5–30 mmHg) and diastolic (5–15 mmHg) blood pressure.

Heart rate. It is not greatly affected by exposure of the body to cold air, but it increases rapidly when, for example, the hand is dipped in ice water (“cold test” used to make certain diagnoses, such as Raynaud’s disease) or when very cold air is inhaled. Cold air usually causes a slight increase in heart rate in the range of 5 to 10 beats per minute.

Risk of atheromatous plaque rupture?
Post-mortem studies have shown that rupture of atheroma plaques (deposits of lipids on the lining of the arteries) is the immediate cause of over 75% of acute myocardial infarctions. Could cold stress promote the rupture of atheromatous plaques? In a laboratory study, mice exposed to cold in a cold room (4°C) for 8 weeks saw their blood LDL cholesterol level and the number of plaques increase compared to mice in the control group (room at 30°C). Furthermore, it is known that exposure to cold induces aggregation of platelets in vitro and increases coagulation factors in vivo in patients during colder days (< 20°C) compared to warmer days (> 20°C). Combined, these cold effects could help promote plaque rupture, but to date no study has been able to demonstrate this.

Risk of cardiac arrhythmias
Arrhythmias are a common cause of sudden cardiac death. Even in healthy volunteers, the simple act of dipping a hand in cold water while holding the breath can cause cardiac arrhythmias (nodal and supraventricular tachycardias). Could cold promote sudden death in people at risk for or with heart disease? Since arrhythmias cannot be detected post-mortem, it is very difficult to prove such a hypothesis. If it turns out that exposure to cold air can promote arrhythmias, people with coronary artery disease may be vulnerable to the cold since the arrhythmia would amplify the oxygenated blood deficit that reaches the heart muscle.

Effects of cold combined with exercise
Both cold and exercise individually increase the heart’s demand for oxygen, and the combination of the two stresses has an additive effect on this demand (see these two review articles, here and here). Exercising in the cold therefore results in an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as in the “double product” (heart rate x blood pressure), a marker of cardiac work. The increased demand for oxygen by the heart muscle caused by cold weather and exercise increases blood flow to the coronary arteries that supply the heart. The rate of coronary blood flow increases in response to cold and exercise combined compared to exercise alone, but this increase is mitigated, especially in older people. Therefore, it appears that cold causes a relative lag between the oxygen demand from the myocardium and the oxygenated blood supply during exercise.

In a study carried out by our research team, we exposed 24 coronary patients with stable angina to various experimental conditions in a cold room at – 8°C, specifically a stress test with electrocardiogram (ECG) in cold without antianginal medication and an ECG at + 20°C. We then repeated these two ECGs after taking one drug (propranolol) that slows the heart rate, and then another drug (diltiazem) that causes dilation of the coronary arteries. The results showed that the cold caused mild to moderate ischemia (lack of blood supply) to the myocardium in only 1/3 of the patients. When ECG was done with medication, this effect was completely reversed. The two drugs have been shown to be equally effective in reversing this ischemia. The conclusion: cold had only a modest effect in 1/3 of patients and antianginal drugs are as effective in cold (- 8°C) as at + 20°C.

In another study in the same type of patients, we compared the effects of an ECG at – 20°C with an ECG at + 20°C. The results showed that at this very cold temperature, all patients presented with angina and earlier ischemia.

Hypertension
The prevalence of hypertension is higher in cold regions or during winter. Cold winters increase the severity of hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke in people with hypertension.

Heart failure
The heart of patients with heart failure is not able to pump enough blood to maintain the blood flow necessary to meet the body’s needs. Only a few studies have looked at the effects of cold on heart failure. Patients with heart failure do not have much leeway when the heart’s workload increases in cold weather or when they need to exert sustained physical effort. Cold combined with exercise further decreases the performance of people with heart failure. For example, in a study we conducted at the Montreal Heart Institute, cold reduced exercise time by 21% in people with heart failure. In the same study, the use of beta-blocker class antihypertensive drugs (metoprolol or carvedilol) significantly increased exercise time and reduced the impact of cold exposure on the functional capacity of patients. Another of our studies indicates that treatment with an antihypertensive drug from the class of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, lisinopril, also mitigates the impact of cold on the ability to exercise in patients with heart failure.

Cold, exercise and coronary heart disease
It is rather unlikely that the cold alone could cause an increase in the work of the heart muscle large enough to cause a heart attack. Cold stress increases the work of the heart muscle and therefore the blood supply to the heart in healthy people, but in coronary patients there is usually a reduction in blood flow to the coronary arteries. The combination of cold and exercise puts coronary patients at risk of cardiac ischemia (lack of oxygen to the heart) much earlier in their workout than in warm or temperate weather. For this reason, people with coronary artery disease should limit exposure to cold and wear clothes that keep them warm and cover their face (significant heat loss in this part of the body) when working out outdoors in cold weather. In addition, the exercise tolerance of people with coronary heart disease will be reduced in cold weather. It is strongly recommended that coronary heart patients do indoor warm-up exercises before going out to exercise outdoors in cold weather.

The importance of properly controlling your blood pressure

The importance of properly controlling your blood pressure

OVERVIEW

  • Hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is responsible for 20% of deaths worldwide.
  • Early hypertension, before the age of 45, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and premature mortality.
  • Adopting an overall healthy lifestyle (normal weight, not smoking, regular physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and a good diet including sodium reduction) remains the best way to maintain adequate blood pressure.

According to the latest data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, excessively high blood pressure was responsible for 10.8 million deaths worldwide in 2019, or 19.2% of all deaths recorded. This devastating impact is a direct consequence of the enormous damage caused by hypertension on the cardiovascular system. Indeed, a very large number of studies have clearly shown that excessive blood pressure, above 130/80 mm Hg (see box for a better understanding of blood pressure values), is closely linked to a significant increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.

 

Systolic and diastolic

It is important to remember that blood pressure is always expressed in the form of two values, namely systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the pressure of the blood ejected by the left ventricle during the contraction of the heart (systole), while diastolic pressure is that measured between two beats, during the filling of the heart (diastole). To measure both pressures, the arterial circulation in the arm is completely blocked using an inflatable cuff, then the cuff pressure is allowed to gradually decrease until blood begins to flow back into the artery. This is the systolic pressure. By continuing to decrease the swelling of the cuff, we then arrive at a pressure from which there is no longer any obstacle to the passage of blood in the artery, even when the heart is filling. This is the diastolic pressure. A blood pressure value of 120/80 mm Hg, for example, therefore represents the ratio of systolic (120 mm Hg) and diastolic (80 mm Hg) pressures.

As shown in Figure 1, this risk of dying prematurely from coronary heart disease is moderate up to a systolic pressure of 130 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg, but increases rapidly thereafter to almost 4 times for pressures equal to or greater than 150/98 mm Hg. This impact of hypertension is even more pronounced for stroke, with an 8 times higher risk of mortality for people with systolic pressure above 150 mm Hg and 4 times higher for a diastolic pressure greater than 98 mm Hg (Figure 1, bottom graph). Consequently, high blood pressure is by far the main risk factor for stroke, being responsible for about half of the mortality associated with this disease.


Figure 1. Association between blood pressure levels and the risk of death from coronary heart disease or stroke. From Stamler et al. (1993).

Early hypertension
Blood pressure tends to increase with aging as blood vessels become thicker and less elastic over time (blood circulates less easily and creates greater mechanical stress on the vessel wall). On the other hand, age is not the only risk factor for high blood pressure: sedentary lifestyle, poor diet (too much sodium intake, in particular), and excess body weight are all lifestyle factors that promote the development of hypertension, including in younger people.

In industrialized countries, these poor lifestyle habits are very common and contribute to a fairly high prevalence of hypertensive people, even among young adults. In Canada, for example, as many as 15% of adults aged 20–39 and 39% of those aged 40–59 have blood pressure above 130/80 mm Hg (Figure 2).


Figure 2. Prevalence of hypertension in the Canadian population. Hypertension is defined as systolic pressure ≥ 130 mm Hg or diastolic pressure ≥ 80 mm Hg, according to the 2017 criteria of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. The data are from Statistics Canada.

This proportion of young adults with hypertension is lower than that observed in older people (three in four people aged 70 and over have hypertension), but it can nevertheless have major repercussions on the health of these people in the longer term. Several recent studies indicate that it is not only hypertension per se that represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but also the length of time a person is exposed to these high blood pressures. For example, a recent study reported that onset of hypertension before the age of 45 doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death, while onset of hypertension later in life (55 years and older) has a much less pronounced impact (Figure 3). These findings are consistent with studies showing that early hypertension is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and damage to target organs (heart, kidneys, brain). In the case of the brain, high blood pressure in young adults has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline at older ages. Conversely, a recent meta-analysis suggests that a reduction in blood pressure with the help of antihypertensive drugs is associated with a lower risk of dementia or reduced cognitive function.

Figure 3. Change in risk of cardiovascular disease (red) or death from all causes (blue) depending on the age at which hypertension begins. Adapted from Wang et al. (2020).

Early hypertension should therefore be considered an important risk factor, and young adults can benefit from managingtheir blood pressure as early as possible, before this excessively high blood pressure causes irreparable damage.

The study of barbershops
In African-American culture, barbershops are gathering places that play a very important role in community cohesion. For health professionals, frequent attendance at these barbershops also represents a golden opportunity to regularly meet Black men to raise their awareness of certain health problems that disproportionately affect them. This is particularly the case with hypertension: African American men 20 years and older have one of the highest prevalence of high blood pressure in the world, with as many as 59% of them being hypertensive. Also, compared to whites, Black men develop high blood pressure earlier in their lives and this pressure is on average much higher.

A recent study indicates that barbershops may raise awareness among African Americans about the importance of controlling their blood pressure and promoting the treatment of hypertension. In this study, researchers recruited 319 African Americans aged 35 to 79 who were hypertensive (average blood pressure approximately 153 mm Hg) and who were regular barbershop customers. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: 1) an intervention group, in which clients were encouraged to see, in the barbershops, pharmacists specially trained to diagnose and treat hypertension and 2) a control group, in which barbers suggested that clients make lifestyle changes and seek medical attention. In the intervention group, pharmacists met regularly with clients during their barbershop visits, prescribed antihypertensive drugs, and monitored their blood pressure.

After only 6 months, the results obtained were nothing short of spectacular: the blood pressure of the intervention group fell by 27 mm Hg (to reach 125.8 mm Hg on average), compared to only 9.3 mm Hg (to reach 145 mm Hg on average) for the control group. Normal blood pressure (less than 130/80 mm Hg) was achieved in 64% of participants in the intervention group, while only 12% of those in the control group were successful. A recent update of the study showed that the beneficial effects of the intervention were long-lasting, with continued pressure reductions still observed one year after the start of the study.

These reductions in blood pressure obtained in the intervention group are of great importance, as several studies have clearly shown that pharmacological treatment of hypertension causes a significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease and stroke, as well as kidney failure. This study therefore shows how important it is to know your blood pressure and, if it is above normal, to normalize it with medication or through lifestyle changes.

The importance of lifestyle
This last point is particularly important for the many people who have blood pressure slightly above normal, but without reaching values ​​as high as those of the participants of the study mentioned above (150/90 mm Hg and above). In these people, an increase in the level of physical activity, a reduction in sodium intake, and body weight loss can lower blood pressure enough to allow it to reach normal levels. For example, obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension and a weight loss of 10 kg is associated with a reduction in systolic pressure from 5 mm to 10 mm Hg. This positive influence of lifestyle is observed even in people who have certain genetic variants that predispose them to high blood pressure. For example, adopting an overall healthy lifestyle (normal weight, not smoking, regular physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and a good diet including sodium reduction) has been shown to be associated with blood pressure approximately 3 mm Hg lower and a 30% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease, regardless of the genetic risk. Conversely, an unhealthy lifestyle increases blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease, even in those who are genetically less at risk of hypertension.

In short, taking your blood pressure regularly, even at a young age, can literally save your life. The easiest way to regularly check your blood pressure is to purchase one of the many models of blood pressure monitors available in pharmacies or specialty stores. Take the measurement in a seated position, legs uncrossed and with the arm resting on a table so that the middle of the arm is at the level of the heart. Two measurements in the morning before having breakfast and drinking coffee and two more measurements in the evening before bedtime (wait at least 2 hours after the end of the meal) generally give an accurate picture of blood pressure, which should be below 135/85 mm Hg on average according to Hypertension Canada.

The importance of maintaining normal cholesterol levels, even at a young age

The importance of maintaining normal cholesterol levels, even at a young age

OVERVIEW

  • A study of 400,000 middle-aged people (average age 51) shows that above-normal cholesterol levels are associated with a significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease in the decades that follow.
  • This risk is particularly high in people who were under the age of 45 at the start of the study, suggesting that prolonged exposure to excess cholesterol plays a major role in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Reducing cholesterol levels as early as possible, from early adulthood, through lifestyle changes (diet, exercise) can therefore limit the long-term exposure of blood vessels to atherogenic particles and thus reduce the cardiovascular events during aging.

It is now well established that high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream promote the development of atherosclerosis and thereby increase the risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. It is for this reason that the measurement of cholesterol has been part of the basic blood test for more than 30 years and that a deviation from normal values is generally considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Remember that cholesterol is insoluble in water and must be combined with lipoproteins to circulate in the blood. Routinely, the way to determine cholesterol levels is to measure all of these lipoproteins (what is called total cholesterol) and then distinguish two main types:

  1. HDL cholesterol, colloquially known as “good cholesterol” because it is involved in the elimination of cholesterol and therefore has a positive effect on cardiovascular health;
  2. LDL cholesterol, the “bad” cholesterol because of its involvement in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.

LDL cholesterol is difficult to measure directly and its concentration is rather calculated from the values determined for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides using a mathematical formula:

[LDL cholesterol] = [Total cholesterol] – [HDL cholesterol] – [Triglycerides] / 2.2

However, this method has its limits, among other things because a large proportion of cholesterol can be transported by other types of lipoproteins and therefore does not appear in the calculation. However, it is very easy to measure all of these lipoproteins by simply subtracting HDL cholesterol from total cholesterol:

[Total cholesterol] – [HDL cholesterol] = [Non-HDL cholesterol]

This calculation makes it possible to obtain the concentration of what is called “non-HDL” cholesterol, i.e. all of the atherogenic lipoproteins [VLDL, IDL, LDL and Lp(a)] that are deposited at the level of the wall of the arteries and form atheromatous plaques that significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular problems. Although clinicians are more familiar with LDL cholesterol measurement, cardiology associations, including the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, now recommend that non-HDL cholesterol also be used as an alternative marker for risk assessment in adults.

Short-term risks
The decision to initiate cholesterol-lowering therapy depends on the patient’s risk of experiencing a cardiovascular event in the next 10 years. To estimate this risk, clinicians use what is called a “risk score” (the Framingham risk score, for example), a calculation based primarily on the patient’s age, history of cardiovascular disease, family history and certain clinical values ​​(blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol). For people who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease, especially those who have suffered a coronary event, there is no hesitation: all patients must be taken care of quickly, regardless of LDL or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Several clinical studies have shown that in this population, the main class of cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) helps prevent recurrences and mortality, with an absolute risk reduction of around 4%. As a result, these drugs are now part of the standard therapeutic arsenal to treat anyone who has survived a coronary event or who has stable coronary heart disease.

The same goes for people with familial hypercholesterolemia (HF), a genetic disorder that exposes individuals to high levels of LDL cholesterol from birth and to a high risk for cardiovascular events before they even turn 40. A study has just recently shown that HF children who were treated with statins at an early age had a much lower incidence of cardiovascular events in adulthood (1% vs. 26%) than their parents who had not been treated early with statins.

Long-term risks
However, the decision to treat high cholesterol is much more difficult for people who do not have these risk factors. Indeed, when the risk of cardiovascular events over the next 10 years is low or moderate, the guidelines tolerate much higher LDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels than in people at risk: for example, when we usually try to keep LDL cholesterol below 2 mmol/L for people at high risk, a threshold twice as high (5 mmol/L) is proposed before treating people at low risk (Table 1). In this population, there is therefore a great deal of room for maneuver in deciding whether or not to start pharmacological treatment or to fundamentally change lifestyle habits (diet, exercise) to normalize these cholesterol levels.

Table 1. Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for dyslipidemia treatment thresholds. *FRS = Framingham Risk Score. Adapted from Anderson et al. (2016).

 

This decision is particularly difficult for young adults, who are generally considered to be at low risk of cardiovascular events over the next 10 years (age is one of the main factors used for risk assessment and therefore the younger you are, the lower the risk). On the one hand, a young person, say in their early forties, who has above-normal LDL or non-HDL cholesterol, but without exceeding the recommended thresholds and without presenting other risk factors, probably does not have a major risk of being affected by a short-term cardiovascular event. But given their young age, they may be exposed to this excess cholesterol for many years and their risk of cardiovascular disease may become higher than average once they turn 70 or 80.

Recent studies indicate that it would be wrong to overlook this long-term negative impact of higher-than-normal non-HDL cholesterol. For example, it has been shown that an increase in non-HDL cholesterol at a young age (before age 40) remains above normal for the following decades and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by almost 4 times. Another study that followed for 25 years a young population (average age of 42 years) who presented a low risk of cardiovascular disease at 10 years (1.3%) obtained similar results: compared to people with normal non-HDL cholesterol (3.3 mmol/L), those with non-HDL cholesterol above 4 mmol/L had an 80% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.   As shown in Table 1, these non-HDL cholesterol values are below the thresholds considered to initiate treatment in people at low risk, suggesting that hypercholesterolemia that develops at a young age, even if it is mild and not threatening in the short term, may nevertheless have longer-term adverse effects.

This concept has just been confirmed by a very large study involving nearly 400,000 middle-aged people (average age 51) who were followed for a median period of 14 years (maximum 43 years). The results show a significant increase as a function of time in the risk of cardiovascular disease based on non-HDL cholesterol levels: compared to the low category (<2.6 mmol/L), the risk increases by almost 4 times for non-HDL cholesterol ≥ 5.7 mmol/L, as much in women (increase from 8% to 34%) as in men (increase from 13% to 44%) (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Increased incidence of cardiovascular disease based on non-HDL cholesterol levels. From Brunner et al. (2019).

The largest increase in risk associated with higher non-HDL cholesterol levels was observed in people who were under 45 years of age at the beginning of the study (risk ratio of 4.3 in women and 4.6 in men for non-HDL cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L vs. the reference value of 2.6 mmol/L) (Figure 2). In older people (60 years or more), these risk ratios are much lower (1.4 in women and 1.8 in men), confirming that it is prolonged exposure (for several decades) to high levels of non-HDL cholesterol that plays a major role in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Figure 2. Age-specific and sex-specific association of non-HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. From Brunner et al. (2019).

According to the authors, there would therefore be great benefits in reducing non-HDL cholesterol levels as soon as possible to limit the long-term exposure of blood vessels to atherogenic particles and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. An estimate based on the results obtained indicates that in people 45 years of age and under who have above-normal non-HDL cholesterol levels (3.7–4.8 mmol/L) and other risk factors (e.g. hypertension), a 50% reduction in this type of cholesterol would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease at age 75 from 16% to 4% in women and from 29% to 6% in men. These significant reductions in long-term risk therefore add a new dimension to the prevention of cardiovascular disease: it is no longer only the presence of high cholesterol levels which must be considered, but also the duration of exposure to excess cholesterol.

What to do if your cholesterol is high
If your short-term risk of cardiovascular accident is high, for example, because you suffer from familial hypercholesterolemia or you combine several risk factors (heredity of early coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity), it is certain that your doctor will insist on prescribing a statin if your cholesterol is above normal.

For people who do not have these risk factors, the approach that is generally recommended is to modify lifestyle habits, particularly in terms of diet and physical activity. Several of these modifications have rapidly measurable impacts on non-HDL cholesterol levels: weight loss for obese or overweight people, replacing saturated fat with sources of monounsaturated fat (olive oil, for example) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (fatty fish, nuts and seeds), an increase in the consumption of soluble fibres, and the adoption of a regular physical activity program. This roughly corresponds to the Mediterranean diet, a diet that has repeatedly been associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease.

The advantage of adopting these lifestyle habits is that not only do they help normalize cholesterol levels, but they also have several other beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and health in general. Despite their well-documented clinical utility, randomized clinical studies indicate that statins fail to completely reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. This is not surprising, since atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, which involves several phenomena other than cholesterol (chronic inflammation in particular). This complexity means that no single drug can prevent cardiovascular disease alone. And it is only by adopting a comprehensive approach based on a healthy lifestyle that we can make significant progress in preventing these diseases.

Toward a consensus on the effects of dietary fat on health

Toward a consensus on the effects of dietary fat on health

The role of dietary fat in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes has been the subject of vigorous scientific debate for several years. In an article recently published in the prestigious Science, four experts on dietary fat and carbohydrate with very different perspectives on the issue (David Ludwig, Jeff Volek, Walter Willett, and Marian Neuhouser) identified 5 basic principles widely accepted in the scientific community and that can be of great help for non-specialists trying to navigate this issue.

This summary is important as the public is constantly bombarded with contradictory claims about the benefits and harmful effects of dietary fat. Two great, but diametrically opposed currents have emerged over the last few decades:

  • The classic low-fat position, i.e., reducing fat intake, adopted since the 1980s by most governments and medical organizations. This approach is based on the fact that fats are twice as caloric as carbohydrates (and therefore more obesigenic) and that saturated fats increase LDL cholesterol levels, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. As a result, the main goal of healthy eating should be to reduce the total fat intake (especially saturated fat) and replace it with carbohydrate sources (vegetables, bread, cereals, rice and pasta). An argument in favour of this type of diet is that many cultures that have a low-fat diet (Okinawa’s inhabitants, for example) have exceptional longevity.
  • The low-carb position, currently very popular as evidenced by the ketogenic diet, advocates exactly the opposite, i.e., reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing fat intake. This approach is based on several observations showing that increased carbohydrate consumption in recent years coincides with a phenomenal increase in the incidence of obesity in North America, suggesting that it is sugars and not fats that are responsible for excess weight and the resulting chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers). One argument in favour of this position is that an increase in insulin in response to carbohydrate consumption can actually promote fat accumulation and that low-carb diets are generally more effective at promoting weight loss, at least in the short term.

Reaching a consensus from two such extreme positions is not easy! Nevertheless, when we look at different forms of carbohydrates and fat in our diet, the reality is much more nuanced, and it becomes possible to see that a number of points are common to both approaches. By critically analyzing the data currently available, the authors have managed to identify at least five major principles they all agree on:

1) Eating unprocessed foods of good nutritional quality helps to stay healthy without having to worry about the amount of fat or carbohydrate consumed.
A common point of the low-fat and low-carb approaches is that each one is convinced it represents the optimal diet for health. In fact, a simple observation of food traditions around the world shows that there are several food combinations that allow you to live longer and be healthy. For example, Japan, France and Israel are the industrialized countries with the two lowest mortality rates from cardiovascular disease (110, 126 and 132 deaths per 100,000, respectively) despite considerable differences in the proportion of carbohydrates and fat from their diet.

It is the massive influx of ultra-processed industrial foods high in fat, sugar and salt that is the major cause of the obesity epidemic currently affecting the world’s population. All countries, without exception, that have shifted their traditional consumption of natural foods to processed foods have seen the incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease affecting their population increase dramatically. The first step in combating diet-related chronic diseases is therefore not so much to count the amount of carbohydrate or fat consumed, but rather to eat “real” unprocessed foods. The best way to do this is simply to focus on plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole-grain cereals, while reducing those of animal origin and minimizing processed industrial foods such as deli meats, sugary drinks, and other junk food products.

2) Replace saturated fat with unsaturated fat.
The Seven Countries Study showed that the incidence of cardiovascular disease was closely correlated with saturated fat intake (mainly found in foods of animal origin such as meats and dairy products). A large number of studies have shown that replacing these saturated fats with unsaturated fats (e.g., vegetable oils) is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events and premature mortality. A reduction in saturated fat intake, combined with an increased intake of high quality unsaturated fat (particularly monounsaturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated), is the optimal combination to prevent cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk of premature mortality.

These benefits can be explained by the many negative effects of an excess of saturated fat on health. In addition to increasing LDL cholesterol levels, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a high intake of saturated fat causes an increase in the production of inflammatory molecules, an alteration of the function of the mitochondria (the power plants of the cell), and a disturbance of the normal composition of the intestinal microbiome. Not to mention that the organoleptic properties of a diet rich in saturated fats reduce the feeling of satiety and encourage overconsumption of food and accumulation of excess fat, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers.

3) Replace refined carbohydrates with complex carbohydrates.
The big mistake of the “anti-fat crusade” of the ’80s and ’90s was to believe that any carbohydrate source, even the sugars found in processed industrial foods (refined flours, added sugars), was preferable to saturated fats. This belief was unjustified, as subsequent studies have demonstrated beyond a doubt that these refined sugars promote atherosclerosis and can even triple the risk of cardiovascular mortality when consumed in large quantities. In other words, any benefit that can come from reducing saturated fat intake is immediately countered by the negative effect of refined sugars on the cardiovascular system. On the other hand, when saturated fats are replaced by complex carbohydrates (whole grains, for example), there is actually a significant decrease in the risk of cardiovascular events.

Another reason to avoid foods containing refined or added sugars is that they have low nutritional value and cause significant variations in blood glucose and insulin secretion. These metabolic disturbances promote excess weight and the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, conditions that significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Conversely, increased intake of complex carbohydrates in whole-grain cereals, legumes, and other vegetables helps keep blood glucose and insulin levels stable. In addition, unrefined plant foods represent an exceptional source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidant phytochemicals essential for maintaining health. Their high fibre content also allows the establishment of a diverse intestinal microbiome, whose fermentation activity generates short-chain fatty acids with anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties.

4) A high-fat low-carb diet may be beneficial for people who have disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
In recent years, research has shown that people who have normal sugar metabolism may tolerate a higher proportion of carbohydrates, while those with glucose intolerance or insulin resistance may benefit from adopting a low-carb diet richer in fat. This seems particularly true for people with diabetes and prediabetes. For example, an Italian study of people with type 2 diabetes showed that a diet high in monounsaturated fat (42% of total calories) was more effective in reducing the accumulation of fat in the liver (a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes) than a diet low in fat (28% of total calories).

These benefits seem even more pronounced for the ketogenic diet, in which the consumption of carbohydrates is reduced to a minimum (<50 g per day). Studies show that in people with a metabolic syndrome, this type of diet can generate a fat loss (total and abdominal) greater than a hypocaloric diet low in fat, as well as a higher reduction of blood triglycerides and several markers of inflammation. In people with type 2 diabetes, a recent study shows that in the majority of patients, the ketogenic diet is able to reduce the levels of glycated haemoglobin (a marker of chronic hyperglycaemia) to a normal level, and this without drugs other than metformin. Even people with type 1 diabetes can benefit considerably from a ketogenic diet: a study of 316 children and adults with this disease shows that the adoption of a ketogenic diet allows an exceptional control of glycemia and the maintenance of excellent metabolic health over a 2-year period.

5) A low-carb or ketogenic diet does not require a high intake of proteins and fats of animal origin.
Several forms of low carbohydrate or ketogenic diets recommend a high intake of animal foods (butter, meat, charcuteries, etc.) high in saturated fats. As mentioned above, these saturated fats have several negative effects (increase of LDL, inflammation, etc.), and one can therefore question the long-term impact of this type of low-carb diet on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, a study recently published in The Lancet indicates that people who consume little carbohydrates (<40% of calories), but a lot of fat and protein of animal origin, have a significantly increased risk of premature death. For those wishing to adopt a ketogenic diet, it is therefore important to realize that it is quite possible to reduce the proportion of carbohydrates in the diet by substituting cereals and other carbohydrate sources with foods rich in unsaturated fats like vegetable oils, vegetables rich in fat (nuts, seeds, avocado, olives) as well as fatty fish.

In short, the current debate about the merits of low-fat and low-carb diets is not really relevant: for the vast majority of the population, several combinations of fat and carbohydrate make it possible to remain in good health and at low risk of chronic diseases, provided that these fats and carbohydrates come from foods of good nutritional quality. It is the overconsumption of ultra-processed foods, high in fat and refined sugars, which is responsible for the dramatic rise in food-related diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes. Restricting the consumption of these industrial foods and replacing them with “natural” foods, especially those of plant origin, remains the best way to reduce the risk of developing these diseases. On the other hand, for overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, currently available scientific evidence suggests that a reduction in carbohydrate intake by adopting low-carb and ketogenic diets could be beneficial.